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Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

If the is someone who appear to have stop breathing with no feeling of pulse, you must act quickly to save his/her life. This is a matter of life and death. There are a number of procedures which you should follow:

  • First, assess the victim's condition and shake him gently. Ask if he is all right. You may seek assistance by shouting for help and if you have a mobile phone, call for an ambulance. Lay him face up on a firm, flat surface, moving his head and body simultaneously and gently.
  • Use the tongue-jaw lift technique to open the victim mouth.
  • Tilt his head back and lift the chin upward to open his airway. If there is any foreign object in his mouth or throat, remove them.
  • Look, feel, and listen for any for any sign of breathing for up to 10 seconds by placing your face close to his mouth and observe his chest.
  • Perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation if there is no indication of breathing (no breathing, no pulse). Firstly, maintain an open airway. Then, pinch his nose and give two blows into his lungs and the victim's chest should rise with each blow.
  • Next, feel his pulse at the carotid (neck area) for up to 10 seconds. If there is sign of pulse, start performing mouth-to-mouth ventilation (rescue breathing) at the rate of 12 times per minute, until natural breathing is restored. However, if there is no sign of pulse, immediately begin CPR, adhering closely to the procedures that follow.
  • If there is no sign of pulse, perform the external chest compression as follows: Lower half of the breastbone while keeping your fingers off the ribs. Cover this hand with the heel of your other hand.
  • Keep your arms straight and push down vertically for about 4 to 5cm and then release. Complete 15 compressions at the rate of about 100 per minute. Between compressions, do not lift your hands off the chest.
  • Tilt his head back to open airway. Then pinch his nose and give 2 breaths of mouth-to-mouth ventilation.
  • Proceed with 15 compressions followed by 2 full ventilations, repeating check the pulse after the first minute and every 5 minutes after that.
  • The moment there is sign of pulse, immediately stop compressions and check for his breathing. If there is no breathing, continue mouth-to-mouth ventilation until the victim's natural breathing is restored.

Note: These steps summarise emergency measures in CPR. You are encouraged to take a course to learn the proper techniques and procedures of CPR to be followed up in special cases, like neck injuries, infant CPR, airway obstructions and others.


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